Depositional environments of the Miocene sediments in northern Song Hong basin
Northern Song Hong Tertiary Sedimentary basin is a classic case study of a pull-apart basin in southeast Asia, whose formation was controlled by the India-Eurasia collision, sinistral and dextral strike-slip motion of the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone and Opening of the East Vietnam Sea during the Cenozoic. Unlike the central and southern parts of the basin, the northern Song Hong Basin experienced a very strong inversion during the Late Miocene. This rapid uplift of the region has led to significantly change in lithofacies and sedimentary environments, which are now still poorly understood. This uncertainty is considered one of the main challingings in prediction of the non-structural traps in the region. The recent results derived from well logging and 2D/3D seismic interpretation allowed us to define the Miocene formation in northern Song Hong basin, which are subdivided into three substrata, namely: the Lower, Middle and Upper stratum, which are characterized by typical characteristics of lithology and depositional environments. The Lower Miocene formation is dominated by deltaic environment at the bottom, transitioning to the overlying shelf environment. Lithology of the section varies from coarse-grained sediment (sandstone) to fine grained material such as shale and mudstone upward; The Middle Miocene stratum demonstrate sandier, coalic materials of the delta plain and delta front environments intercalated with swampy shale. In contrast, the Upper Miocene section is characterized by more fluvial and nearshore elements. It is illustrated by presence of the channel-filled sand bodies and mouth/longshore sand bars. These sand bodies demonstrate good porosity and horizontal permeability, which are considered to be good potential reservoir for both structural and non-structural traps in the Miocene formation.