Application of artificial neural network with fine–tuning parameters for forecasting PM2.5 in deep open–pit mines: A case study
In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was applied to forecast PM2.5 at the Coc Sau open–pit coal mine (Northern Vietnam) with fine–tuning parameters. It aims to provide the feasibility and insights into controlling air quality in open–pit mines using artificial intelligence techniques. Accordingly, an air quality monitoring system was established to monitor hourly PM2.5 datasets for more than three months. Subsequently, 80% of the whole data was used to design and tune the ANN model, and the remaining 20% was used for testing the PM2.5 predictions. An ANN model with a single hidden layer and ten nodes was developed for this aim. The stochastic gradient descent algorithm was applied to train the ANN model under the learning rate of 0.001 to avoid the overfitting of the model. In addition, 10 time steps (multi–step forecasting model) were applied to forecast the next time step. The results indicated that ANN is a potential model for forecasting PM2.5 in open–pit mines with high accuracy (RMSE = 2.000), and it can be used to control real–time air quality in open–pit mines.